The Autumnal – Folk Horror is Always in Season

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Something strange is happening at Comfort Notch. Joining the ranks of other malevolent township imaginings such as Derry, Arkham, and Riverdale, this New England-inspired setting may fool you at first only to violently push you in a pile of leaves. Is it eco-horror or something more cosmic? Judging by the first three issues of The Autumnal (2020) we’re still early from raking in any answers, but that doesn’t stop the shadowy warnings from creeping into your subconscious.

Kat Somerville -donning a black leather jacket and a pair of sunglasses- is on her way to the principal’s office again to discuss another incident involving her daughter. Underneath the shades hides a black eye that gives a hint to her vices and proclivity toward violence. Her daughter, Sybil, shares that tendency (medically diagnosed as “Intermittent Explosive Disorder”). Kat – prior to the meeting- learns that her estranged mother has passed away, and that a mysterious party has bequeathed her the deceased’s home. So when things turn dicey at the principal’s office, they flee to Comfort Notch, New Hampshire leaving behind her daughters school and Rich Sybil’s absent father. Will this Fall-painted town offer the new beginning that she’s hoping for?

An overarching mother-daughter story is at the heart of The Autumnal, contrasting Kat’s protective relationship with Sybil against the – seemingly- non-existent one with her own mother. Surprisingly, Kat isn’t the only one with disdain for her matriarch Trudy, as the entire town appears to share the sentiment, resulting in an empty church for her funeral and the seemingly-chipper townsfolk to openly speak ill of her. Left with a house full of metaphorical ghosts and nothing but time to investigate, Kat will soon learn the reasons behind her mother’s questionable actions, and how she might be connected to the weirdness in this very uncomfortable town. 

Sometimes the best use of horror comes from evoking fear in the mundane. Look at how Hitchcock made you look twice before hopping in the shower, or how The Conjuring (2013) triggered audiences with a simple clap. Thanks to the artist, Chris Shehan, and colorist, Jim Campbell, The Autumnal somehow manages to transform fall foliage into an ominous void. Orange leaves clog the gutters between panels making for a menacing motif once we arrive at the enigmatic town. The townsfolk are constantly observed raking leaves and warning the characters to stay out of the piles leaving you to wonder what’s lurking beneath. Even worse, leaves are shown in more graphic imagery as part of strange deaths and odd funerary rituals. Nature aside though, the town itself is absolutely suspicious as we encounter haunting nursery rhymes and creepy infantile scribblings all hinting to something mysterious and sinister living in the trees.

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The Autumnal Horror Comic Cover Featuring Scary Girl with sticks

Part of the joy of reading The Autumnal comes from the storytelling of author Daniel Kraus, who received recent praise for his co-authorship on George A. Romero’s posthumous novel, The Living Dead (2020). Kraus has also worked with Guillermo Del Toro on the novel adaption of the Oscar-winning film, The Shape of Water (2017). Clearly influenced by the previously mentioned counterparts, Kraus is soaring through the literary world at lightspeed and with a range that leaves you wondering what he’ll possibly unleash next. However, based on Kraus repertoire, we’ve just touched the surface of The Autumnal and we are most likely in for a treat.

These first three issues introduce us to an intriguing and authentic mother-daughter duo that I’m eager to watch develop in the coming issues. There’s also much to be learned about the pastoral town and whatever diabolical secret it appears to be hiding. This is definitely a series that you’re not going to want to fall behind on. However, while you wait for the remaining issues maybe it’s best that you avoid frolicking through any of those enticing-looking piles of leaves



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The Diverse History of Survival Horror

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We’ve all been in these survival horror scenarios before.

You find yourself in the middle of a dark and creepy abandoned hospital, your only source of light a flickering flashlight. You’re searching for your missing daughter, and you have a gut feeling that she’s somewhere in this building. As you move deeper into the hospital, you start to feel like something is following you, and every shadow seems to hold a new threat. Suddenly, you hear a sound coming from one of the rooms and it sends shivers down your spine. You slowly push open the door and find yourself face to face with a horde of twisted and deformed creatures, their eyes glowing in the dark. They let out a blood-curdling roar, and you realize that you’re low on ammo.


What is Survival Horror?

“Survival horror” is a subgenre of the horror genre that focuses on a character or characters attempting to survive against some form of deadly threat, often in a situation where they are helpless or poorly equipped. This genre typically involves a combination of horror and action elements, as the characters must not only evade or hide from the danger, but also actively fight back against it.

Survival horror scenario abandoned hallway

In survival horror games and movies, the protagonist is often portrayed as vulnerable and in a disadvantageous position, such as being stranded in an isolated location or being pursued by a powerful and deadly monster. The goal of the protagonist is to survive by using limited resources, solving puzzles, and making strategic decisions.

The genre is characterized by its emphasis on suspense, tension, and fear. The atmosphere is often creepy and foreboding, with a focus on creating a sense of dread and unease for the player or viewer. The genre often incorporates elements of science fiction horror, with storylines that involve the supernatural, mutants, or viral outbreaks. It’s challenging to effectively trace the history of survival history because it overlaps with so many other genres. Instead we will just give a brief overview as it relates to video games, movies, and books.

Survival Horror in Games

The survival horror genre is most commonly associated with video games, and here its roots go back to the late 1970s through 1980s, with the release of horror-themed cartridge games like Haunted House (1972) and Sweet Home (1989). These early games established the basic formula of a character navigating through a dangerous environment while facing off against frightening creatures.

The survival horror genre came into its own in the 1990s with the release of Alone in the Dark (1992) on the PC and Resident Evil (1996) on the PlayStation console. These games popularized the genre with their combination of survival mechanics, such as resource management and puzzle-solving, with intense action and horror elements. The success of Resident Evil in particular paved the way for other successful survival horror franchises like Clock Tower (1996) and Silent Hill (1999), and it was Capcom who first coined the term “survival horror”..

Logo for Resident Evil survival horror video game

In the 2000s, the genre experienced a resurgence in popularity with the advent of new gaming technologies and a greater focus on creating immersive and atmospheric experiences. The release of games like Dead Space (2008), Amnesia: The Dark Descent (2010) and the Outlast series brought a new level of intensity to the genre, emphasizing psychological horror and creating more intense, frightening experiences for players.

In recent years, the survival horror genre has continued to evolve, incorporating new technologies and gameplay mechanics to create more immersive and terrifying experiences. For example, Until Dawn (2015) allows players to control multiple characters and the game changes based on decisions made, while Dead by Daylight (2016) features one versus four gameplay where one player is the killer and the other four attempt to survive. As virtual reality games become more popular, survival horror will continue to push the boundaries of what is possible in the world of horror gaming.

Other popular survival horror video games include: Fatal Frame (2001), Resident Evil 4 (2005), The Last of Us (2013), and The Evil Within (2014). The Last of Us also being a fan favorite tv show.

Poster for The Last of Us survival horror video game

Survival Horror in Movies

Much like in gaming, the history of survival horror in movies can also be traced back to the 1970s and 1980s, with early films like The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) and Halloween (1978) setting the groundwork for the genre, and later being followed by movies such as The Thing (1982) and Predator (1987). These films established the basic formula of characters facing off against dangerous and terrifying threats, often with limited resources and weapons. 

The 1990s saw survival horror being blended with other subgenres, such as “body horror”, with films like Candyman (1992) and Event Horizon (1997) bringing a new level of intensity and gore to the survival horror genre. These films expanded on the core formula of survival horror, incorporating elements of science fiction and supernatural horror to create even more frightening and suspenseful experiences for audiences.

Shot from Candyman survival horror movie

In the 2000s, the survival horror genre experienced a resurgence in popularity with the release of successful films like The Ring (2002) and Saw (2004). These films brought a new level of psychological horror to the genre, exploring the dark and twisted thoughts and motivations of the characters in a way that was both terrifying and thought-provoking. Other great movies from the era include 28 Days Later (2002), The Descent (2005), The Mist (2007), Eden Lake (2008) and The Ruins (2008).

More recently, the survival horror genre has continued to evolve and expand, with newer films bringing an increased level of realism and immediacy to the genre, creating more anxiety-inducing and unnerving experiences for audiences. You can find survival horror happening in the woods with The Ritual (2017), in the snow with Frozen (2012), in a alligator-filled hurricane with Crawl (2019), on a deserted island with Sweetheart (2019), and under the water with movies like 47 Meters Down (2017) and Underwater (2020) 

Other popular survival horror movies include: Buried (2010), The Shallows (2016), A Quiet Place (2018), and Alone (2020).

Scary island in survival horror

Survival Horror in Literature

The history of survival horror in books and comics can be traced back to the Gothic novels of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, such as Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) and Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897). These early works established many of the core themes and motifs that would come to define the survival horror genre, including the use of suspense, tension, and fear to create a sense of danger and unease. A lot of the genre owes thanks to the works of Lovecraft as well, which often feature investigative narratives and characters struggling to survive insurmountable odds.

In the 20th century, the survival horror genre continued to evolve and expand in the world of literature with the publication of books like Stephen King’s Salem’s Lot (1975), Scott Smith’s The Ruins (2006), and Comac McCarthy’s The Road (2006), along with the creation of popular comic book series like The Walking Dead (2003). These works brought a new level of intensity and realism to the genre, exploring the fear and desperation of characters facing off against dangerous and unpredictable threats.

Moving into the 21st century, the genre has continued to thrive in the world of books and comics, with the publication of works like Josh Malerman’s Bird Box (2014) and of graphic novels such as Grant Morrison’s Nameless (2017). These works bring a new level of sophistication and complexity to the genre, exploring the psychological and emotional aspects of survival in the face of horror and danger.

Other popular survival horror books/comics include: 30 Days of Night by Steve Niles (2002), The Last One by Alexandra Oliva (2017), The Hunger by Alma Katsu (2018), The Luminous Dead by Caitlin Starling (2019), Below by Laurel Hightower (2022), and The Deep (2015) and The Troop (2016) both by Nick Cutter.

Final Thoughts

Today, the survival horror genre remains one of the most popular and enduring and diverse subgenres of horror, attracting fans with its multitudes of settings and its combination of suspense, tension, and fear. The genre continues to evolve and expand, with new games, movies, and other forms of media that explore new and exciting directions for survival horror.



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The Thirteenth Floor – A Sentient Computer’s Nightmarish Playground

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As British horror comics became more popular in the 1950s, so too did the controversy over content deemed repulsive and reprehensible. When the horror comic anthology Scream! was created in 1984, it ran stories that were more tongue-in-cheek and geared towards a younger audience. One of the publications most popular series was The Thirteenth Floor, written by the duo John Wagner and Alan Grant with illustrations by the illustrious Jose Ortiz. This series, about a crazed sentient computer that makes itself the moral arbiter of a 17-story apartment building, continued its run when Scream! merged with the comics periodical Eagle. The series ended in 1985, but thankfully 2000AD has resurrected it to be enjoyed by old fans as well as a new generation of comic enthusiasts.

The Thirteenth Floor is about an advanced computer system named “Max” who runs the day to day affairs at the high-rise apartment building Maxwell Towers. He performs routine maintenance, takes messages, sends residents important reminders, and – most importantly for this story – operates the sole elevator in the building. As Max is quick to remind readers, the welfare of his tenets is his primary concern. In fact, Max is so protective that he creates a hidden virtual 13th floor where he can trap robbers, debt collectors, and other criminals who would seek to harm his residents in some way. The sci-fi horrors these offenders face may be constructs of Max’s imagination, but they are real enough to the unlucky souls who find themselves ensnared. And Max will get them to see the error of their ways, even if it means their death.

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I absolutely loved this collection of what is essentially a series of interconnected short stories. The recurring format is simple enough: a person Max deems wicked enters the building, Max tricks him into the elevator, there’s a moment of “but wait this building doesn’t have a 13th floor,” and then Max deposits him into a nightmare world where the wrongdoer either has a change of heart or meets an untimely demise. And while this structure could quickly become monotonous (the comic ran on a weekly basis for almost a year), it’s actually a nonstop ride of excitement and cliffhanger endings that lead perfectly from one issue to the next.

Grim reaper art from The Thirteenth Floor horror comic
The Thirteenth Floor is full of nightmares

One reason the storyline works so well is the ingenuity of writers Wagner and Grant, who creatively conjure a steady stream of situations for Max to deal with. With each new enemy that enters the elevator, Max cycles through an unending variety of nightmares to get his point across, including spiders, snakes, centipedes, skeletons, rough cars, demons, disappearing floors, and so much more. The writers also come up with numerous conflicts to keep the story moving along. Max hypnotizes several people to aid him, and he is constantly having to outwit a police investigator who seeks to shut him down. Despite the formulaic set up, each issue managed to come up with some new twist that kept me engaged and allowed the overarching plot to build in ways that I did not expect.  

Another reason this series is so great is simply because of Max. He has such a big personality in the story, like HAL from 2001: A Space Odyssey but with more sass. He is constantly breaking the fourth wall to address the readers, making us something of unwitting cohorts in his antics. I also love the way he narrates the story, giving us insight into the reasoning behind what he does (the morality of Max would make for a very interesting analysis piece, but I don’t have time to get into it here). He genuinely cares about the people he is responsible for, and even feels remorse when several decent characters get caught up in his escapades.

Max the computer art from The Thirteenth Floor horror comic
Don’t cross Max or his tenants

On the other hand, Max also delights in tormenting his victims, and regardless of their perceived crimes he comes off a little sadistic and unhinged. Actually, he reminds me of other beloved sociopaths from pop culture, such as Dexter, Hannibal Lector, Joe Goldberg from You, and numerous characters in the TV series American Horror Story. Max has a likeable personality and his heart is mostly in the right place, so we care about him. We are excited to see what schemes he concocts, but we also want his plans to succeed and we’re a nervous wreck when a wrench is, figuratively, thrown in the gears (which happens constantly for poor Max).

I would certainly put this series in the realm of dark comedy. Max enjoys finding ways to make the punishment fit the crime, whether it’s a debt collector being chased by grotesque versions of himself looking to “collect” or a loan shark being stranded at sea on a quickly crumbling raft. No matter the situation Max is ready with a witty, and often grim, one-liner to seal the deal. Not everything about the plot adds up, but that’s not the point and I was very much okay with it. Instead I allowed the story to lift my spirits and carry me along, cheerfully rooting for Max to find his way out of each new debacle. The Thirteenth Floor is billed as 17 stories of pure entertainment, and on that it won’t let you down.

The Thirteenth Floor horror comic cover


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